# Statistics

## Partial Correlation

What is Partial Correlation and it’s purpose Partial correlation is used to find the correlation between two variables (typically a dependent and an independent variable) with the effect of other influencing variables being controlled. For example, if there are three variables ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘Z’, If you want to find the relationship between ‘A’ and ‘B’ …

## Chi-Square test – How to test statistical significance for categorical data?

What is chi-square test and its purpose? Chi-square test was invented in the year ‘1900’ by the revered mathematician ‘Karl Pearson’. Chi-square test, also written as χ2 test is used to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the observed frequency and the expected frequency in one or more categories of the contingency …

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## Brier Score – How to measure accuracy of probablistic predictions

Brier score is an evaluation metric that is used to check the goodness of a predicted probability score. This is very similar to the mean squared error, but only applied for prediction probability scores, whose values range between 0 and 1. Overview In this tutorial, you will understand: What is Brier score? How is Brier …

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## One Sample T Test – Clearly Explained with Examples | ML+

One sample T-Test tests if the given sample of observations could have been generated from a population with a specified mean. If it is found from the test that the means are statistically different, we infer that the sample is unlikely to have come from the population. For example: If you want to test a …

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## Standard Error in Statistics – Understanding the concept, formula and how to calculate

Standard error of the mean measures how spread out the means of the sample can be from the actual population mean. Standard error allows you to build a relationship between a sample statistic (computed from a smaller sample of the population) and the population’s actual parameter. Standard Error – A practical guide with examples. Photo …

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## Confidence Interval in Statistics – Formula and Full Calculation

Confidence interval is a measure to quantify the uncertainty in an estimated statistic (like the mean) when the true population parameter is unknown. Training Custom Text Classification Model in spaCy. Photo by Jessica Wong. You will know 1. What is Confidence Interval? 2. Two types of Confidence Intervals problems 3. Difference between Population parameter vs …

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## T Test (Students T Test) – Understanding the math and how it works

T Test (Students T Test) is a statistical significance test that is used to compare the means of two groups and determine if the difference in means is statistically significant. In this one, you’ll understand when to use the T-Test, the different types of T-Test, math behind it, how to determine which test to choose …

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## What is P-Value? – Understanding the meaning, math and methods

P Value is a probability score that is used in statistical tests to establish the statistical significance of an observed effect. Though p-values are commonly used, the definition and meaning is often not very clear even to experienced Statisticians and Data Scientists. In this post I will attempt to explain the intuition behind p-value as …

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## Mahalanobis Distance – Understanding the math with examples (python)

Mahalanobis distance is an effective multivariate distance metric that measures the distance between a point and a distribution. It is an extremely useful metric having, excellent applications in multivariate anomaly detection, classification on highly imbalanced datasets and one-class classification. This post explains the intuition and the math with practical examples on three machine learning use …

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## How to implement common statistical significance tests and find the p value?

How to implement and interpret the commonly used statistical significance tests in R? Understand the purpose, when to use and how to interpret the test results and the p value. Correlation Test and Introduction to p value One Sample t-Test Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test Two Sample t-Test and Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test Shapiro Test Kolmogorov …

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